The development and evaluation of the efficacy of ovine-derived experimental antivenom immunoserum against Macrovipera lebetina obtusa (MLO) venom

Research Report

J Venom Res 
(2021), Vol 11, in press

Published online: 17 February 2021

Full Text (Kishmiryan ~730kb) | (PubMed Central Record HTML) (PubMed) (References)

Arsen Kishmiryan, Gevorg Ghukasyan, Lusine Ghulikyan, Anna Darbinyan, Lilia Parseghyan, Armen Voskanyan, Naira M Ayvazyan*

L. A. Orbeli Institute of Physiology of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Laboratory of Toxinology and Molecular Systematics,0028, Orbeli 22, Yerevan, Armenia

*Correspondence to: Naira Ayvazyan, Email:,, Tel: +374 91 587344, Fax: +374 10 272247

Received: 18 May 2020 | Revised: 26 January 2021 | Accepted: 28 January 2021

© Copyright The Author(s). This is an open access article, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( This license permits non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction of this article, provided the original work is appropriately acknowledged, with correct citation details.


Here we describes the processing and development of animal-derived monovalent antibody serum against Macrovipera lebetina obtusa venom according to protocols for purification and concentration of the immunoglobulins using caprylic acid. We demonstrate that this new viper venom antiserum is pre-clinically effective in neutralizing lethal toxicity and hemorrhagicity of the venom of the Armenian Levantine viper – a significant public health problem in Armenia and a wide region from south-east parts of Europe to south-west Asia. The developed product shows a high capacity to inhibit metalloproteinases and phospholipase activity of venom included in the study in comparison to current specific antivenoms, and following additional experimental approvals, it will be possible to derive the monovalent antivenom satisfying international standards, which will be much cheaper and accessible compared with the current market rivals.

KEYWORDS: snake venom, vipers, ovine antivenom, Macrovipera lebetina obtusa


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